In the course of the Second Karabakh Struggle, Azerbaijan exercised its inherent proper to self-defense as stipulated in Article 51 of the U.N. Constitution, resulting in the liberation of territories that had been underneath occupation for 3 many years.
The battle was dropped at a halt on Nov. 10, 2020, with the signing of a declaration, whereby each events dedicated to resolving remaining points by diplomatic means. The first goal of those diplomatic negotiations was to make sure the complete implementation of the situations outlined within the Nov. 10 tripartite declaration and finally safe a complete peace settlement between Azerbaijan and Armenia. These ongoing talks held the promise of getting into an period of peace and cooperation within the South Caucasus, marking a big turning level after years of battle.
Nevertheless, issues arose because the Armenian facet failed to satisfy most of the agreed-upon commitments, together with the fourth article of the Nov. 10 tripartite declaration, which known as for the elimination of armed Armenian forces from Azerbaijani territory in Karabakh. This deviation from the agreed-upon phrases elevated the danger of renewed battle within the area. As well as, unlawful armed teams within the Karabakh area of Azerbaijan initiated assaults on Azerbaijani armed forces.
Consequently, Baku was compelled to launch an anti-terrorist operation on Sept. 19 geared toward disarming these unlawful armed items. Final week’s army operation, which lasted for 23 hours and 47 minutes, culminated within the surrendering of the unlawful armed forces and the dismantling of the self-proclaimed administration in Karabakh. You will need to word that the Azerbaijani facet had legitimate authorized, political, and army justifications for initiating this operation.
Whereas Armenians and their supporters body the difficulty of the occupation of Azerbaijani lands as a political and propaganda instrument, it’s basically rooted in worldwide legislation. The Azerbaijani place’s power lies in its alignment with worldwide authorized rules. On this context, Azerbaijan’s determination to launch an anti-terrorist operation was firmly grounded in three key authorized foundations: First, 1993 resolutions adopted by the U.N. Safety Council; second, the tripartite declaration; and third, worldwide recognition of the area as Azerbaijani territory.
The U.N. Safety Council resolutions adopted in 1993 confused on the speedy and unconditional withdrawal of armed Armenian forces from the occupied territories of Azerbaijan, together with Karabakh. In the course of the 44-day Second Karabakh Struggle, the Azerbaijani military efficiently liberated some parts of those territories. The fourth article of the tripartite declaration stipulated that the Russian Federation’s peacekeeping contingent could be deployed along side withdrawing Armenian armed forces from the remaining occupied areas. Nevertheless, though three years have handed because the tripartite declaration, Armenian armed forces had not left the area nor been eliminated by Russian peacekeeping troops or Armenia. This meant that the situations of the U.N. Safety Council resolutions adopted in 1993 and the Nov. 10 tripartite declaration weren’t fulfilled.
Alternatively, Karabakh has all the time been internationally acknowledged as Azerbaijani territory. An vital milestone within the course of occurred throughout an settlement reached in Prague on Oct. 6, 2022, the place each events dedicated to recognizing the rules of territorial integrity by the Alma-Ata Declaration of 1991. By signing this declaration, Azerbaijan and Armenia reaffirmed their recognition of Karabakh as Azerbaijani territory.
Subsequently, throughout ongoing peace negotiations, Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan publicly acknowledged the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, together with Karabakh. This assertion was seen as a big step. Russian President Vladimir Putin indicated that each one issues associated to Karabakh have been resolved with Pashinyan’s recognition, thereby implying that the anti-terrorist operation was nicely inside Azerbaijan’s jurisdiction.
Moreover, Hikmet Hajiyev, Assistant to the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, had made it clear previous to the operation that Azerbaijan wouldn’t tolerate any grey areas or unlawful armed forces on its sovereign territory. This stance was reiterated by Overseas Minister Ceyhun Bayramov throughout a U.N. Safety Council assembly on Sept. 21, the place he emphasised that no state may tolerate the presence of unlawful armed forces on its territory.
Including to the legitimacy of Azerbaijan’s anti-terrorist operation, U.S. Secretary of State Anthony Blinken personally engaged with President Ilham Aliyev, in search of to know Azerbaijan’s situations for halting the operation. This interplay indicated that the operation was being thought of reliable from the angle of the USA. In abstract, the worldwide neighborhood’s recognition of Karabakh as Azerbaijani territory, mixed with the statements and actions of key political figures and leaders, underscores the legitimacy of Azerbaijan’s anti-terrorist operation in Karabakh within the context of worldwide legislation.
This operation launched in opposition to terrorism in Karabakh had three political causes. Initially, Armenia’s demand for a global mechanism. Though Armenia had verbally acknowledged Karabakh as Azerbaijani territory, it sought the institution of a global mechanism to guard the rights and safety of Karabakh Armenians. This implied a want to switch Azerbaijani sovereignty within the area to a global entity. Primarily, Armenia aimed to resurrect a mechanism just like the previous Minsk Group to bolster these calls for. To exert stress on Azerbaijan and bolster its place, Armenia maintained the presence of roughly 10,000 unlawful armed forces within the space.
Moreover, Armenia tried to strengthen these unlawful armed teams by sending weapons and personnel by routes exterior of Azerbaijan’s management, significantly in the course of the interval when the Lachin highway was not underneath Azerbaijani authority. The involvement of Armenian residents as armed forces in Azerbaijan’s Karabakh area was proved by video proof offered by Azerbaijani border troops.
Moreover, the state of affairs in Karabakh was additional difficult by the presence of unlawful armed teams who had successfully held the civilian inhabitants hostage. These armed teams offered political help to separatist components within the area, who have been in direct contravention of worldwide agreements by demanding a particular standing for Karabakh and refusing to acknowledge Azerbaijani sovereignty. The separatists in Karabakh vehemently opposed direct talks between Azerbaijani-Karabakh Armenians, which had begun following the choice made in Prague in 2022 and obtained help on different worldwide platforms. As a substitute, they insisted on the involvement of mediators.
The primary assembly between Azerbaijani and Karabakh Armenian representatives passed off in Khojaly on March 1, with the mediation of Russian peace troops. Subsequently, the Azerbaijani facet proposed that these conferences proceed with no mediator and be held in Baku for a extra direct dialogue. Nevertheless, the Karabakh separatists declined this proposal. It’s noteworthy that an settlement had been reached on the stage of overseas ministers of Azerbaijan and Armenia in Moscow for a direct assembly to be held in Yevlakh, a metropolis in Azerbaijan. Sadly, the separatist forces in Karabakh declined on the final second. In essence, each Armenia and the separatist components in Karabakh have been persistently disregarding agreed-upon selections and utilizing unlawful armed forces as a protecting protect.
On Sept. 9, 2023, separatists in Khankendi held a brand new so-called presidential election within the area to “renew their legitimacy.” After the 2020 struggle, the separatists’ attitudes fully failed they usually thought that they’d get totally different outcomes with new faces in these new so-called elections. Nevertheless, these elections backfired and worldwide organizations and states condemned these elections and declared that they acknowledged the area as Azerbaijani territory. Alternatively, President Aliyev said that the unlawful elections held in Karabakh have been in opposition to the verbal settlement reached between the events.
As a matter of truth, the primary demand of the newly elected so-called president was particular standing for separatists. Subsequently, the presence of armed forces within the area elevated the so-called administration’s want to make use of the established order within the area to its benefit.
Alternatively, though Armenia was defeated within the 44-day struggle, it was planning for a brand new struggle with Azerbaijan. Whereas the Nikol Pashinyan administration was taking part in for time to forestall any ends in the continuing peace talks with Azerbaijan, Armenia was getting ready for a good geopolitical setting. In parallel with this, specialists and politicians near the federal government or the opposition in Armenia, it was argued that Armenia, like Azerbaijan, may wait 20 or 30 years and finally take again Karabakh. Subsequently, Armenia was planning to play for time, strengthen itself militarily and economically, after which launch a brand new assault. As a matter of truth, its efforts in direction of armament elevated just lately and it has been intensifying its actions to extend the human potential to combat.
Unlawful Armenian armed forces in Karabakh have been continually threatening Azerbaijan militarily. They laid mines on newly constructed roads within the areas liberated from occupation, and interfered with the digital techniques of planes flying over Azerbaijan and wounded two Azerbaijani troopers in Aghdam the day earlier than the operation started. On the identical day, because of their sabotage actions, seven Azerbaijani law enforcement officials have been martyred because of the mines laid on the Fuzuli-Shusha highway. The principle goal right here is to threaten the reconstruction works within the areas of Azerbaijan liberated from occupation, to forestall the civilian inhabitants from returning to their very own lands, and to realize deterrent energy. Subsequently, these have been the components that made the army anti-terrorist operation mandatory.
The anti-terrorist operation that was launched primarily geared toward army targets, and areas with civilians weren’t focused. Strategic heights have been captured in a brief span of time and provide routes of the unlawful armed teams have been minimize off. This brought on them to give up inside someday. The institution of Azerbaijani sovereignty in Karabakh and the start of the combination means of Karabakh Armenians into Azerbaijan led to the elimination of some of the vital obstacles to lasting peace between Azerbaijan and Armenia.